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Several common types of springs, spring specifications and representative meanings
2019-02-23 14:46:36


Several common types of springs, spring specifications and representative meanings

   Compression spring: The most versatile, in manufacturing, around the spiral ring, the gap has a gap (pitch), in order to force the contraction, maintaining the tension to the ends. When subjected to the maximum load, it cannot be completely compressed, and the gap must be kept between the effective number of turns to prevent friction or other substances from being embedded, causing fatigue damage. The free length of the spring should be equal to the actual length of the spring plus the clearance, plus the amount of deformation. The compression spring is to increase the contact surface, and the surface should be ground to obtain 60~80% contact surface. There are a variety of end shapes: the ends are seated, and the ends are ground equal. 

   It is divided into circles, because it can withstand pressure, both ends can be open or closed or flattened or smoothed. The compression spring is the first type of variant spring. It can be molded according to the design of straight, conical to constricted, convex waist, and even various tail ends. 

   Compression springs are the most widely used of all types of springs. They are used in a wide range of applications, including electronics, motors, computers, information, steam locomotives, bicycles, hardware tools, gifts, toys, and even the defense industry. Mastery, manufacturing control is also the most simple. 

   Tension spring: Each ring is wound into a spiral ring or a pitch ring which is closely attached to each other, and is outwardly extended by an external force to maintain a force of contracting toward the center. The spring hooks are divided into a variety of types: English hooks, German hooks, side ear hooks, fish tail hooks, and the like. Stretch springs are typical of springs, ie springs, from straight to various variants, and even the various shapes of the hooks can be shaped according to the design. The tension spring is the reverse application of the compression spring, and the application range is roughly no specific product category, but the operation control is one level higher than the compression spring. 

   Torsion spring: The torsion spring is divided into a single torsion spring and a double torsion spring. The spring is often inserted into the pin or the shaft. When subjected to an external force, a torsion force is generated according to the axis of the spring, so that the spring is wound or loosened. The twisted spring is further divided into an outer double twist and an inner double torsion spring. 

   The rings are either tightly wrapped or separated around each other and can withstand the torsional load (at right angles to the axis of the spring). The end of the spring can be wound into a hook or straight torsion arm. The torsion spring is the extreme of the variable spring, from single twist to double twist, and even the deformation of various torsion rods. 

   The torsion spring is a complex design principle in all spring categories, and the type changes are quite lively, so the theory involved in design is also the most annoying. Therefore, design is also difficult to master. The disc spring disc spring (disc spring) DIN2093 has the characteristics of small size, large load, convenient combination, and the advantages of concentrated load transfer. A variety of different curves can be obtained by using a single piece combination, a multiple piece combination, and a mixed combination. 

   The replacement of cylindrical springs in a wide range of machinery industry reflects the miniaturization and multi-functionality of new product (host) design. For example, in the direction of load action, the smaller deformation can withstand large loads and the axial space is compact. Compared with other types of springs, the deformation per unit volume is larger and has better shock absorption capacity. In particular, the combination of the use of the combination, due to the surface friction damping effect, the effect of absorbing shock and dissipating energy is more significant. 


Several common types of springs, spring specifications and representative meanings



    At present, it is widely used in defense, metallurgy, engineering, electric power, machine tools, construction and other industries. Such as: mold, support hanger, clutch, brake, bridge buffer (damping) device, bearing preload, safety overload device, heavy machinery, mechanical starter, control device, valve, industrial electric furnace, indexing device, clamping device and many more. Disc springs are DIN2093 and GB/T1972-2005. Commonly used surface treatment methods for disc springs (disc springs): bluing, phosphating, nickel plating, electrophoresis and mechanical galvanizing. 

   Conical spring: a spiral coil that is wound into a cone to withstand pressure and tension, and generally has little force. When the compression is compressed, the loops are retracted into the plane of the large circle. For example, the spring for compressing the battery on the flashlight cover is. Special coil springs: Special coil springs with conical, barrel and trapezoidal and drum shapes are widely used in the spring industry. 

   Plate spring: Made of flat or plate material, also called leaf spring or leaf spring, there are several types: single spring, using a metal piece to make a spring, when the spring is curled in the opposite direction of the force applied, then The spring is elastic. Disc springs, also known as upper springs, are similar in shape to washers and are used for small spaces and large deflections. The power spring utilizes a long, narrow thin metal sheet that is wound into a spiral shape and placed in the crucible to utilize its stored energy as a source of power. Cantilever plate spring: One end of the spring is fixed, one end is half suspended in the air. The leaf spring is called a laminated spring. The plate spring is slightly lower in energy storage efficiency than the spiral spring, but it can carry a large load, so it is commonly used in motor vehicles such as automobiles and trains. In order to increase the absorption energy and achieve better shock absorption, it can be made into an elliptical laminated spring or a "double laminated spring". Special springs: buckles: buckles are divided into two types: C-shaped buckles and E-shaped buckles. C-shaped buckles can be divided into two types, one is installed in the groove of the shaft, and is held as a shaft end or other mechanical parts. Air or oil pressure bellows: air or oil pressure bellows is the elasticity generated by the pressure of air or liquid (usually oil); the outer container is a bell-shaped air (oil) bellows, which is often used as a bumper for automobiles. . Torsion bar spring: The torsion bar spring can be used for torsion occasions. Of course, the bar can be thick or thin like a wire system. It is also thicker and wraps around the same. The difference is that the ratio of wire diameter to length is very different. . Wave springs are widely used in motors, textile machinery, hydraulic equipment, automotive and other industries. They are mainly installed in bearing chambers or holes that are suitable for specifications (nominal size).

Spring specifications and representative meaning

   The general specifications will have the following meanings: 1. Material; 2. Pitch; 3. Spring wire diameter; 4. Spring outer diameter; 5. Spring length; 6. Spring end features; specific code and manufacturer related, such as misumi FWR20-120-A, material stainless steel, pitch 6.7mm, wire diameter 1.6mm, spring outer diameter 20mm, spring length 120mm

  In various fields, spring applications are widely used to connect various components of a machine. It can be seen that understanding and understanding the specifications of the spring is of great help to the correct replacement of the machine parts. The compression spring is a type of spring and its specifications are different. Below, Tuba Rabbit Xiaobian introduced the relevant knowledge of the compression spring specification table to help everyone understand the compression spring.

  Since the application of the compression spring is very extensive, if the specifications are not uniform, there will be waste and inconvenience in production and sales, and the maintenance of the machine and the replacement of the parts are also troublesome. Due to the interchangeability requirements, in the history of spring development, its specifications have gradually standardized, but the varieties are very diverse, and its specifications are difficult to unify.

  Internationally, countries have different compression spring specifications, which are more detailed. However, internationally, before 2005, the ISO2162 document was more recognized; after 2005, the specifications specified by the International Spring Standardization Technical Committee (ISO/TC227) were adopted. However, these standard-incorporated springs are only a few. If you want to inquire about the specifications of a foreign compression spring, you need to analyze the specific problem. In addition, you can also pay attention to the standards of the company.

   The compression spring is a spiral spring, and the ring can be divided into an inner ring and an outer ring, thereby generating an inner diameter and an outer diameter. Free length refers to the length of the spring in an unloaded state, and the load refers to the weight of the load. 

  The determination of the compression spring specification facilitates the interchangeability of the spring and makes the replacement and maintenance of the relevant machine parts more convenient. The above is the elaboration of the relevant knowledge of the compression spring specification table. In general, the compression spring specification table varies with the type and variety of the spring.

  In China, the standardization work of springs began in the early 1960s and has formed a relatively complete standard system. In general, there are currently 22 national standards for springs and 30 industrial standards. In 2004, they also joined the international ISO/TC 227 (spring) organization and gradually became in line with international standards.

  Specifically, the specifications of the compression spring mainly include the wire diameter, outer diameter, inner diameter, free length, constant number, compression amount, load, etc. of the spring, including the size of the spring. Among them, the amount of compression and the load are specified according to the number of uses, and are usually divided into 300,000 times and 500,000 times, and the maximum compression amount of the spring is also specified.

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